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KMTR has at least 150 endemic plants, 33 fish, 37 amphibians, 81 reptiles, 273 birds and 77 mammal species. A 1997 Census by Project Tiger produced the following wildlife counts: tiger 73, leopard 79, jungle cat 1 755, wild dog 1 718, elephant (N/A), gaur 232, sambar 1 302, chital 1 966, Nilgiri tahr 8 780, wild pig 187, mouse deer 172, sloth bear 123, lion-tailed macaque 37, bonnet macaque 61, Nilgiri langur 61, common langur 61, slender loris 61, giant squirrel 61, and crocodile 61.

Habitat use by the grey junglefowl (Gallus sonneratii) at Mundanthurai plateau, Tamil Nadu, was investigated from December 1987 to March 1988.The continuation of "Project Tiger" in Kalakkad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve for fiscal year 2010-2011, at the cost of Rs. 19,433,000, was approved by the National Tiger Conservation Authority on 28 August 2010.

Floral significance: 

As many as 448 endemic species of angiosperms have been identified from this region.  The major endemic species of the reserve include: Hopea utilis, Bentickia condappana, Gluta travancorica, Humboldtia unijuga (var. unijuga and trijuga) Eugenia singampattiana, Popowia beddomeana, Palaquium bourdilloni, Psychotria beddomei, Symplocos marcrocarpa, and S. macrophylla to name a few. 79 genera and 161 species of ferns have been reported from this reserve.  58 Species of RED listed plants, 448 endemic species and 29 species of strict endemic are found in Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve.

Table- : Floral wealth of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve

Flowering Plants Medicinal Plants Endemic Plants Strict Endemic
India 19,395 taxa (Karthikeyan, BSI, 1989) 17,000 taxa Myers et al, 2000 7,500 taxa BSI, 1989 6,560 taxa FRLHT, 2001 5,725 taxa Nayar, 1996
Western Ghats 7,400 taxa Ramesh and Pascal, 1991 Myers et al, 2000 2,320 taxa FRLHT, 2001 1,808 taxa Ramesh and Pascal, 1991 352 taxa Ramesh and Pascal, 1991
Tamil Nadu 5,640 taxa TN ENVIS Centre , 2014 1,559 taxa FRLHT, 2001 533 taxa Gopalan and Henry, 2000 270 taxa TN ENVIS Centre, 2014
KMTR 2,255 taxa Gopalan and Henry, 2000 Manickam et al, 2008 772 taxa FRLHT, 2014 130 taxa Manickam et al, 2008 Gopalan and Henry, 2000 MK Sarcar, 2013 68 taxa Henry et al. 1984, Gopalan and Henry, 2000

Faunal Significance:

The reserve forms an excellent habitat for several species of fauna which are rare, endangered and endemic. The Tiger Reserve is exceptional for its habitat diversity, with juxtaposition and interspersion of various habitat factors ranging from wet evergreen, semi-evergreen, moist deciduous, mixed deciduous, dry-deciduous and thorny scrub jungles.

This incredibly rich habitat diversity supports large ungulate species like Nilgiri tahr, Indian Gaur, Sambar, Chital (only in Mundanthurai plateau) Barking deer, Mouse deer, wild pig, and Elephant.

KMTR has got a high diversity of fauna. There are about 46 species of fishes, 45 species of amphibians, 88 species of reptiles, 337 species of avifauna and 79 species of mammals are present in KMTR. This diversity of habitat has got an assemblage of several species of rare plants, invertebrates, fishes, amphibians, reptiles and mammals which forms a good prey-predator relation. The abundance of mammals is higher in the high altitude wet ever green and semi ever green forest habitats.

Table- : Faunal wealth of Kalakad Mundanthurai Tiger Reserve

Class KMTR
No.Of.Species Endemic Species Red List Status
Threatend NT Total
CR EN VU
PISCES 47 9 2 6 11 10 29
AMPHIBIANS 46 27 - 4 15 18 37
REPTILES 88 39 2 6 16 34 58
AVES 337 14 - - 3 - 3
MAMMALS 79 14 - 8 11 20 39
CR – Critically Endangered; EN – Endangered; Vu – Vulnerable; NT – Near Threatened

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